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The effectiveness of manual stretching in the treatment of plantar heel pain: a systematic review. High-load strength training improves outcome in patients with plantar fasciitis: a randomized controlled trial with month follow-up.

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Scand J Med Sci Sports. Strength training for plantar fasciitis and the intrinsic foot musculature: a systematic review. Phys Ther Sport. Plantar fasciitis: a degenerative process fasciosis without inflammation. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. The efficacy of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication NSAID in the treatment of plantar fasciitis: a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled study. Conservative treatment of plantar fasciitis. A prospective study. Injected corticosteroids for treating plantar heel pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

Comparison of custom and prefabricated orthoses in the initial treatment of proximal plantar fasciitis. Effectiveness of foot orthoses to treat plantar fasciitis: a randomized trial. Arch Intern Med. Effective treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis with dorsiflexion night splints: a crossover prospective randomized outcome study. Night splint treatment for plantar fasciitis. A prospective randomized study.

Clin Orthop Relat Res. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis: Zoetermeer survey. Comparison of radiological osteoarthritis in a Dutch population with that in 10 other populations. Ann Rheum Dis. Shurnas PS. Hallux rigidus: etiology, biomechanics, and nonoperative treatment. Foot Ankle Clin. A retrospective analysis of patients with hallux limitus.

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Prevalence of hallux valgus in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Barnish MS, Barnish J.


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Acta Med Iran. Warts in primary schoolchildren: prevalence and relation with environmental factors. Br J Dermatol. Natural history of warts. A two-year study. Arch Dermatol. HPV type in plantar warts influences natural course and treatment response: secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. J Clin Virol. Topical treatments for cutaneous warts. Topical zinc oxide vs. Int J Dermatol. Cutaneous cryosurgery in family medicine: dimethyl ether-propane spray versus liquid nitrogen [in Spanish]. Aten Primaria.

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Calluses and corns

January 18, Accessed October 11, Crawford F, Hollis S. Topical treatments for fungal infections of the skin and nails of the foot. Prevalence and epidemiology of onychomycosis in patients visiting physicians' offices: a multicenter Canadian survey of 15, patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. A large-scale North American study of fungal isolates from nails: the frequency of onychomycosis, fungal distribution, and antifungal susceptibility patterns. Therapies for onychomycosis a systematic review and network meta-analysis of mycological cure. Novel treatment of onychomycosis using over-the-counter mentholated ointment: a clinical case series.

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Common Foot Problems: Over-the-Counter Treatments and Home Care - American Family Physician

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Get Permissions. Read the Issue. Sign Up Now. Previous: Annular Lesions: Diagnosis and Treatment. Sep 1, Issue. Author disclosure: No relevant financial affiliations. B 15 A stiffening shoe insert relieves hallux rigidus pain. C 24 — 26 Topical salicylic acid and cryotherapy are equally effective treatments for plantar warts. A 35 Topical salicylic acid is at least as effective as scalpel debridement for treatment of corns. B 42 , 43 The fungicidal allylamine terbinafine Lamisil is effective in the treatment of tinea pedis, and has slightly higher cure rates and requires less time to cure than other topical over-the-counter treatments.

FIGURE 3 Lateral radiograph of the left foot showing osteoarthritic changes at the first metatarsophalangeal joint arrow that are common with hallux rigidus. The heel should fit snugly. Read the full article. Get immediate access, anytime, anywhere. Choose a single article, issue, or full-access subscription.

Earn up to 6 CME credits per issue. Purchase Access: See My Options close. Best Value! Corns often develop because of irritation caused by tight shoes. At the center of a corn is often a dense knot of skin called a core, which is located over the area of greatest friction or pressure. Firm, dry corns that form on the upper surfaces of the toes are called hard corns.

Pliable, moist corns that form between the toes are called soft corns. A corn is also a layer of dead skin, usually around the toes. It may have a dense knot of skin in the center of the hardened area. Like calluses, corns can cause:. After prolonged irritation, a brown, red, or black discoloration may develop under a large corn or callus.

This is caused by a small amount of bleeding in the space between thick and normal skin. In severe cases, the thick and normal skin may separate, exposing the area to possible infection. Simple inspection of the hands or feet is often enough to diagnose a callus or corn. Your doctor may ask about your shoes, because shoes with narrow toes are more likely to cause corns. He or she also will ask about the health of your feet and your history of other medical problems, including diabetes and circulation problems.

Some types of foot problems can change the mechanics of the foot, causing abnormal pressure on certain areas and leading to calluses. Any previous surgery or trauma to the feet may also affect the structure and alignment of foot bones, increasing the chance of developing a callus or corn. To find out whether your corns and calluses are related to foot abnormalities, your doctor will inspect your feet for:. Calluses and corns need treatment by a doctor or other clinician only if they cause pain or other problems.

Self-help treatments include:. If a callus or corn gets in the way of activity, or causes pain, there are two main ways to shrink or reduce it:. It may be wise to see a food specialist podiatrist if a callus or corn makes it hard to walk or do other activities.