Valgrind unwinds CFI typically 30 times faster than Breakpad. The unwinding is done using the Google Breakpad library that lives in our tree. Breakpad works well in the sense that it unwinds reliably through both libxul, system libraries and, apparently, JIT-produced code. On a low end phone, the problem is an order of magnitude worse. One thing that becomes very clear from this is that Breakpad is designed for generality, flexibility and correctness, but it is not designed for fast in-process unwinding.
Valgrind also does CFI based unwinding, and has been highly tuned over the years, particularly to support Helgrind, which is very unwind-intensive. I wondered how it compared, so I profiled it — a bit of a tricky exercise, running a big test app on an inner Valgrind which does a lot of unwinding on an outer Valgrind, running Callgrind, to get profile data. The numbers really surprised me. Why the huge difference? Surely some mistake? I started digging. First, though, a look at the algorithm.
The core algorithm is simple to understand. We start off with registers taken from the innermost frame — as a minimum, three: the program counter, the stack pointer and the frame pointer. The CFI data provides, for each possible instruction, a set of rules which say how recover the register values in the calling frame. So we apply those rules to our three registers, and repeat.
One thing to note is that, although we only want the program counter values, we need to compute values for multiple registers, including at the very least the stack pointer.
Diehard CFI-heads will recognise that the above description omits a lot of details. Nonetheless it encapsulates what the unwinder needs to be fast at. With that in mind, the differences between the Breakpad and Valgrind implementations are as follows:. Blogs are often included in social media because of the ability for readers to comment and have a discussion with the blogger and others who read the blog.
In the past, websites had guest logs where people could say they'd visited, but a blog allows for conversation and greater interaction than a traditional website does. There are several reasons why entrepreneurs have turned to blogging:. Blogging provides an easy way to keep your customers and clients up-to-date on what's going on, let them know about new deals, and provide tips.
The more a customer comes to your blog, the more likely they are to spend money. Not only can you show off what you know, building your expertise and credibility, but also, because people can post comments and interact with you, they can get to know you, and hopefully, will trust you enough to buy from you.
Blogs can make money. Along with your product or service, blogs can generate income from other options , such as advertising and affiliate products. Blogging is flexible and portable , making it a great option for people who be a lifestyle entrepreneur. Blogging requires a great deal of time. For blogs to be effective at SEO and engaging readers, it needs to be updated regularly. The Internet is littered with abandoned blogs that haven't been updated in months or even years. The success of blogging comes from having people return, and they only return when there's new stuff to read.
That means generating content at least several times a week, which takes time. You need ideas to write about. To keep the content coming, you have to have ideas to write about. The good news is that you don't have to write it all. You can have guest writers or hire freelancers. Another option is to curate content from others or do an alternative post, such as using video. Finally, you can buy private label right PLR content , and modify it for posting on your blog.
You need to offer more than blog articles. Distress, coping, and blogging: Comparing new Myspace users by their intention to blog. Creation and validation of the personal blogging style scale. Do learning protocols support learning strategies and outcomes? The role of cognitive and metacognitive prompts.
Learning and Instruction, 17 , — The weblog handbook. Practical advice on creating and maintaining your blog. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books. Bolton, G. Writing cures: An introductory handbook of writing in counselling and therapy. London: Routledge. Boniel-Nissim, M. Psychological Services, 10 , — Using journal writing to enhance reflective practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education , 90 , 9— Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 41, Personal blogs as online presences on the internet exploring self-presentation and self-disclosure in blogging.
Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives, 65 , — How the comforting process works: Alleviating emotional distress through conversationally induced reappraisals. Guerrero Eds. Burt, C. Prospective and retrospective account-making in diary entries - A model of anxiety reduction and avoidance. Anxiety Stress and Coping, 6 , — Bringing theory to research on computer-mediated comforting communication. Computers in Human Behavior, 23 , — Baum Eds. Biology, psychology, and health pp. New York: Springer. Carver, C. Stress, coping and health.
Friedman Ed. Debatin, B. Facebook and online privacy: Attitudes, behaviors, and unintended consequences. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 15 , 83— Death Studies, 37 , — Towards a framework for educational affordances of blogs. Stress, Health, and Illness. Baum, T.
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Singer Eds. Du, H. Weblog success: Exploring the role of technology. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64 , — Health related virtual communities and electronic support groups: systematic review of the effects of online peer to peer interactions. The variable general purpose for library blogs was encoded as two three-valued variables, one had the values: local, guide or other and the second: clients, staff or both. Substantial growth in the number of library and information science blogs located at the two data collection points was observed.
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Note that almost the same sources for data collection were utilized at both data collection points, thus the growth was not caused by a change in the data collection method. A closer look at the February list revealed, that out of the blogs that appeared for the first time on the list, seventy-five existed before November and thus should have appeared in round one as well, but were not listed by the data collection sources in December The list for February contains active blogs that were created after the first data collection point.
In the second list, there are blogs that were created before November and after November , i. One cannot be sure that the listing compiled in is truly comprehensive; we can only say that among the blogs appearing in the February list, the majority of the blogs were set up after November The blogs in the second list can be partitioned as follows: blogs were identified for the first time; blogs were also analysed in the first; another thirty blogs in the list for the second round were alsolocated in the first round, but were excluded from the analysis then either because they were inactive or published personal content only.
An additional blog was added to the list for the second round from the first round, it did not appear in any of the sources we consulted in February , but was an active librarian and information science blog in the second round. Library and information science blogs formed the largest subject specific category of blogs in the Open Directory as of December One has to take into account that the Open Directory lists only a small minority of the blogs: in December , Technorati already monitored about 1.
The numbers provided by the Open Directory were used here, since it provides a breakdown of the different types of blogs unlike the other blog monitoring tools such as Technorati. By February the share of the library and information science blogs in the Open Directory project had increased. By then 5, English language blogs were listed. These numbers can be checked through the Internet Archive. At this time, 5. If personal blogs 4, blogs are removed from the total, then the listed library and information science blogs constitute Thus, it seems that blogging is natural for librarians, information professionals and libraries.
Another possible reason that has to be taken into account before arriving at far-reaching conclusions is that the editor Greg Schwartz of the main category for library and information science blogs might have done a better job than the editors of the other categories or that librarians and information professionals submit their blogs more actively to the Open Directory than the general population. As of February , the main category for library and information science blogs had no editor the organizational Weblogs subcategory was maintained by Drew Duckworth ; however, it is plausible that the library community submits entries more actively to the Open Directory than the general public.
In any case, this finding emphasizes the need for investigating the essence of library and information science blogs. The characterizations provided in this paper are a step towards this goal. The authorship of the active blogs examined by us was classified under type of author. Community blogs are maintained by multiple users, there are two subtypes of this type, one in which anyone can join the current bloggers in the blog by a simple registration procedure and the other where a set of people decided to create a blog together and outsiders are not invited to join.
Organizational blogs are either authored by a single person or by a set of people, but are maintained and affiliated with the organization. Figure 1 depicts the breakdown of authorship in the first and second round. The two distributions are considerably different, in the first round the majority of the blogs were maintained by a single author, while at the second round slightly more than half of the blogs were organizational blogs and the share of the other types of blogs decreased. Of the blogs established after November , eighty-seven were single authored blogs Thus, currently, the trend is growth in the number of organizational blogs.
Among the blogs established before November , only eighty-two were organizational blogs The growth in the number of organizational blogs warrants further examination of their purpose and use. The organizational blogs are almost entirely maintained by libraries and library networks. Because of the huge increase in the number of library and library network blogs identified in the two rounds, these blogs were characterized more extensively in the second round. Next job description of blogger or type of organization , where the blog is maintained by an organization, typically a library, was examined.
The distribution of the values assigned in this category appears in Table 3.
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When the blog owner provided multiple descriptions, such as student and librarian , multiple value were assigned. In the first round, the largest category was blogs maintained by librarians 62 blogs, A blog that is affiliated to a library is also often maintained by a librarian or by a group of librarians, the difference between the two categories is that librarians in blogs maintained by librarians express their own views and ideas, whereas in blogs affiliated to libraries , the library is responsible for the published content.
The distinction between the two types of blogs was based on the blog description provided by the blog owner or by the directory where the blog was listed. In the rare cases where this information was inconclusive, the URL of the blog was consulted, since organizational blogs are often hosted in the organizational domain. Clyde a , as a result of her survey conducted in July , identified library Weblogs. We do not know how many of these were active; however, it seems from data provided from an earlier survey that the list also includes blogs that were last updated more than two months before the survey date such inactive blogs were excluded by us.
In the current search we identified library and library network Weblogs. This comparison seems to indicate that we are looking at a rather extensive list of library Weblogs, unless both studies overlooked a large number of them. Clyde a claimed that there is a gap between the potential use of Weblogs by libraries and their actual use.
Clyde b also published a book on Weblogs and libraries, where she discussed Weblogs as sources of information and as tools for libraries to promote their services. The current paper, by carrying out a content analysis of one month of postings of the blogs maintained by libraries and library networks see below , characterized the blog activities of these institutions and investigated the contribution of such blogs for promoting library services. See section on Characteristics of postings of library blogs in February Blogs can also be characterized by the length of time they exist, thus initiation date of the blog was recorded.
For most cases this information based on the earliest entry in the archive, sometimes we relied on the introduction to the blog or on references found during our literature scan. Figure 2 displays the distribution of the initiation dates of the blogs for the list of blogs identified in February The graph for is not displayed, since most of the blogs identified then are also included in the second list. The graph in Figure 2 shows a monotonic increase in the number of blogs initiated during each period, except for for which data is missing, since data collection took place at the beginning of the year.
Six blogs were excluded from the chart, because we were unable to establish their initiation dates. In , new blogs were set up; this number constitutes If we consider only library and library network blogs, then library blogs Here the percentages are out of the library and library network blogs for which he initiation date could be established.
Thus, it seems that libraries entered blogosphere at a later date than individuals, but currently there is a considerable growth trend in the number of such blogs. It remains to be seen whether this trend continues over time. Here we see the overall picture; however, two opposite processes have to be taken into account: some users create new blogs and start to publish their postings, while other users who are already blog-owners abandon their blogs: either these blogs become inactive or are removed from the Web.
Thus, it is highly probably that many more library and information science blogs were created in, say , than those appearing in the lists; since some of those created during that year already became inactive or abandoned by the time of data collection. Next we considered how these blogs rank among themselves. Rankings in the blogosphere are usually based on the number of links pointing to the blog, called inlinks. Counting inlinks is similar to counting the number of citations a scholarly publication receives. The results are based on Technorati that tracks links between blogs, where both the source and the target of the link are monitored by it.
Thus the data is heavily influenced by the size and quality of the database. In the first round data from Daypop was planned to be used as well, but it provided rankings only for 50 out of the blogs, thus these rankings do not appear in the analysis. Technorati ' When counting the number of referring blogs, each blog that links to the given blog is counted with multiplicity of one, even if several links from that blog pointing to the given blog exist.
We were unable to find any information regarding the timespan for which the inlinks were counted, but Technorati listed links that were created more than days ago. Some additional information regarding Technorati can be found in Sifry's alert, a blog owned by David Sifry, the developer of Technorati Sifry Table 4 displays the list of blogs whose relative rankings ranking among the set of blogs we examined were in the top ten based on Technorati data from January 3, , when Technorati tracked a total of 1,, blogs and from February 21, , when it tracked 7,, blogs.
Although there are differences in the rankings, the overlap in the top ten results between the two periods is considerable. Fourteen blogs appear among the top twenty of both lists and the first seven in also appear among the top ten in The top ten blogs with the exceptions of Bookslut , Unshelved and Uthink in Table 4 provide mostly professional, library and information science related information and general information; some of them occasionally add personal postings.
Bookslut publishes literary news, Unshelved publishes daily library-related comics strips and Uthink provides mainly administrative information. The content of all the postings published in November of all the blogs identified was analysed for all the blogs in the first list see Bar-Ilan This paper reports only the characteristics of the largest group: blogs maintained by librarians sixty-two blogs.
The distribution of the overall content for blogs maintained by librarians in is as follows: forty-two blogs By far the largest set was the set of topic-oriented blogs, thus we find that the overwhelming majority of the librarian blogs convey only professional information. In most of the blogs several forms of postings were identified, but the most prevailing form was short postings containing hypertext links, fifty-one of the sixty-two examined blogs The percentages do not add up, since several forms of postings can appear in a blog. There was only one blog 1. Thus we see that the blogs maintained by librarians that were examined in this study form an integral part of the Web and their primary use is to describe or relate to information published elsewhere on the Web.
The major themes mentioned in the blogs were identified by examining the content of the postings of November The distribution of the themes appears in Table 5. A few, specific, recurring themes were published in November, among them rumours on the Google IPO, the Amazon 'search inside the book' feature, cancellation of Elsevier journals, the article on lost Internet references that was published in Science, the settlement between OCLC and the Library Hotel and reports and impressions about the Internet Librarian conference. The distribution of the number of postings in November was highly skewed; it ranged between 0 these blogs were non-active in November, but had postings in December and The average number of postings per month was Note that the postings were counted manually, thus some mistakes in the counts are expected.
The three most prolific blogs in November in the first list were:. These highly prolific blogs are often mentioned in discussions of library and information science blogs for example see the references mentioned in the last paragraph of the Introduction above. Commenting was enabled in only twenty-seven blogs By enabling comments and having the right readership that reacts the blog somewhat resembles forums, with the major difference that issues to be discussed are only introduced by the moderator—the owner of the blog.
As noted before, in the February list, there were active blogs maintained by libraries and libraries networks. Alcock and Schwartz discussed the potential of Weblogs for libraries: they are excellent means for disseminating news and information to the clients, the community and the staff. They can be used to report about local news, new acquisitions and services and can also serve as a tool for in-house transmission of information.
Multiple news/weblog sections — Aldryn News & Blog documentation
They are also a valuable marketing tool, especially since libraries are usually short on financial resources. They also allow the clients to comment on the published information. The distribution of the values assigned to the general purpose of the blog category appears in Table 6. The value other was assigned for one blog only, that was a blog about the local blogs at a university.
Comparing with the librarian blogs in the November list, only 15 out of the 62 blogs Thus it seems that the main purpose of the librarian blogs is to disseminate information on general and library and information science related topics, whereas the major purpose of library blogs is to provide local information. The major themes of library and library network blogs were identified through a content analysis of a whole month of postings February, The results of the content analysis are displayed in Table 7.
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The content of the postings was analysed for blogs only, because twenty-nine blogs had no postings in February only postings in January. Comparing Tables 5 and 7, one can see the differences between the librarian blogs Table 5 and the library blogs Table 7. Librarian blogs are mainly concerned with general and professional information, while library blogs mainly provide local information.
Libraries of all types maintain blogs.
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In our list A plausible explanation for this finding is that the academic libraries and their clients are more advanced technologically than the other types of libraries and their clients. If and when blogging becomes the norm for libraries the distribution will probably change.
Unlike for blogs for the general audience, where there is no need for repetition of information theoretically, all Web users may turn to a single information source , there is a real need for an increase in the number of library blogs, since they mainly convey unique, local information. In my opinion, among the most notable library blogs were the eighteen active blogs maintained by the reference librarians of the Georgia State University Library.